• Ruarus Martin

    Eglise de Krempe 15 ème siècle

    Ruarus Martin


    Ruarus Martin, (Germ. Ruar,) was a native of Krempe, in Holstein, and was born in the year 1588, or 1589. His father was Pastor of the Evangelico-Lutheran Church, and Rector of a School at Krempe. Martin was the eldest of three sons. His brother Joachim embraced the same religious views as himself ; but Peter continued orthodox, and became Pastor of the Church of Breitenburg, a small town on the Stoer, near Krempe. Martin and Joachim were known by the name of Crispici among their Unitarian Brethren, in allusion to Krempe, their native town ; for Krampeln, in German, denotes the same as Crispare in Latin. Martin was called Aretius Crispicus, the name Aretius being derived from the Greek , Mars, and corresponding with the Christian name Martin. He was also familiarly known among his companions by the appellation Martinus Noster.

    He received the rudiments of his education under Huswedel, at Hamburgh ; after which he studied at Rostock and Altorf. He went to Altorf on the 16th of May, 1611, when he was twenty-two years of age ; and formed there an intimate friendship with Ernest Sohner. With the exception of a short interval, which he passed at Racow, he remained at Altorf till the year 1616 ; and devoted himself, during the greater part of this time, to the study of Philosophy and Philology. He did not pursue any exclusive course of study, but culled the flowers and fruits of literature, wherever his fancy led him. He wished it to appear, however, that the principal aim of his studies was Jurisprudence.

    At first he shewed himself averse from the opinions inculcated upon him by Sohner ; but at length he, with many others, gave in his adhesion to them. Yet he did not agree with his master on all points, for he was not unfrequently at a loss to know what Sohner thought ; and, in fact, no one, from conversing with Sohner, or attending his lectures, could say with certainty what his opinions were.

    Ruarus resolved not to connect himself with any religious body, till he had found out where the truth lay. When, by the persuasion of Conrad Rittershusius and David Hceschelius, he was preparing to publish a translation of a certain Discourse of Gregory of Nyssa against the Arians, he wished to learn from Sohner, by what arguments he would defend the doctrine of Socin against the Gregorian doctrine, that, if he felt able to refute these arguments, he might subjoin them, together with the refutation, to his version of Gregory's Discourse. But when he had collected, partly by means of conversation with Sohner, and partly from books supplied by him, all the materials necessary for the proposed refutation, he arrived at the conclusion, that the preponderance of scriptural evidence was in favour of the arguments, with which Sohner had supplied him; and consequently became a convert to Socinianism. The death of Sohner taking place in the year 1612, Ruarus did justice to his preceptor in a very elegant Latin poem, and became the leader of the Crypto-Socinian Church in the University of Altorf.

    Leaving Altorf, with the intention of proceeding to Strasburg, accompanied by his pupil, Burghstorph, he obtained from the Philosophical Faculty of Altorf an honourable testimonial, bearing date August 14th, 1614. He had before gone, unknown to all, and without even acquainting his parents and tutors with the true object of his journey, to Racow, the principal seat of Socinianism in Poland ; and having contracted there an intimate friendship with the leaders of the Socinians, he returned to Altorf, and maintained so deep a silence about the matter, that scarcely any one suspected what his real motive was for visiting that country. He was more communicative, however, to his friend Joachim Peuschel, to whom, about Easter, 1614, he wrote a particular account of his journey, and the flattering reception he had met with. From his letter to this friend it appears, that, on the first celebration of the Lord's Supper after his arrival, Smalcius commended him, and the Brethren at Altorf, to all present. Immediately after this, Jerome Moscorovius, in the name of the rest, offered him a friendly welcome ; and he returned thanks for these acts of kindness in an extemporaneous speech. During his stay at Racow, he was the guest of James Sieninius, Palatine of Podolia. He spent two hours daily in conversation with Smalcius, and in discussing various passages of Scripture. At these interesting meetings were present, Jerome Moscorovius, when his health would permit ; Paul Krokier, Rector of the Gymnasium at Racow ; and John Statorius, or Stoinski, one of the Ministers of the place. The friends of Ruarus were desirous that he should learn the Polish language ; but he found it very difficult, and his disinclination to it was so great, that he made scarcely any proficiency, though he did not despair of ultimately becoming master of it. The rest of his time was fully, but agreeably and usefully employed in other ways, which, as he tells Peuschel, left him but little leisure for carrying on a correspondence with his distant friends. He returned to Nuremberg and Altorf early in the year 1615 ; and from that time became an active disseminator of his new principles. On leaving Poland, he addressed a valedictory letter to James Sieninius, in which he expressed his humble and grateful thanks for the kindness which he had received, during his residence in the mansion of that hospitable Nobleman.

    It is generally thought, that Ruarus went immediately from Altorf to Strasburg: but it appears, from his own correspondence, that he was at Paris, at the beginning of the year 1616. His intimate friend, Michael Piccart, one of the Professors at Altorf, having written him word, that he was accused of being "a deserter of their sacred institutions, a sower of impiety, and a corrupter of the youth of the place," he replied, in a letter, dated Paris, January, 1616, that he had made it his great endeavour, that no one should become worse for associating with him ; and that, perhaps, the principal thing which his adversaries had to lay to his charge was, that he had opposed the corrupt manners of the times, in which he declares that he had laboured with all his might. "I rejoice," says he, "that I have this fault, if it be one, in common with you, my friend, and with all good men, with the holy Apostles, and with my Lord and God, Jesus Christ himself." He concludes his letter thus. "May the Lord Jesus, who is God over all, blessed for ever, pardon my dulness: to whose care I heartily commend you, my dear Piccart, and all yours."

    Vogel and Peuschel had been his intimate friends while he was at Altorf, and professed to hold the same religious views as himself ; but when he was gone, and they were left to weather the storm, which had been for some time brooding, their courage failed them, and they cast all the blame upon the absent Ruarus.

    Soon after his arrival at Strasburg, the Senate and University of that city received a letter from the authorities at Nuremberg, dated April 19th, 1616, advising them to be upon their guard against a man, who had been actively instrumental in propagating heresy, and to institute an inquiry into the charge brought against him. The Senate of Strasburg commissioned John Bechtold, Professor of Theology, and John Taufrer, Rector of the University, to examine Ruarus ; and Zeltner has inserted their report at length, written in German, in his history of Crypto-Socinianism at Altorf (pp. 536—538). In his examination, Ruarus denied that he had ever given his assent to the opinions of Photinus ; but admitted that he had, by way of exercise, proposed and defended certain doubts, during debates held in the University of Altorf, which had been the means of exciting these suspicions against him ; and that M. Schopper had not replied to his arguments as he might, and ought to have done. Being asked, whether he believed Jesus to be True God ? he answered in the affirmative. Being asked again, whether he believed him to be the Eternal God ? he replied, that he did not deny the eternal divinity of Christ ; but that he doubted it. He explained the declaration, "This is the True God and eternal life," (1 John v. 20,) of Christ ; for he said, that he had doubts, not concerning his True, but his Eternal Deity. Being asked, whether he had partaken of the Lord's Supper at Strasburg ? he answered in the negative, because he saw that wicked and impious men were allowed to partake, and did in fact partake of it. When questioned as to whether he had attempted to propagate heresy ? he denied that he had; alleging, that he had never instilled his opinions into others, but had carefully kept them to himself, and would not bring any one into disgrace at Strasburg, as he was contemplating a journey into his own country, in the course of a few days. In the mean time he was deprived of his paternal inheritance in Holstein ; and the indignation of many of his former friends was excited against him.

    He left Strasburg about Midsummer, 1616; and, in the autumn of the same year, John Kirchmann, of Lubeck, thus wrote to Michael Piccart respecting him. "I am sorry to hear what you say about Ruarus. He called upon me a few days ago, on his return out of Holland, where he told me that he had been sent by his pupil's guardians, to attend the funeral of Ernest Ludwig a Burghstorph, who had died during the preceding summer, and upon whom our friend, Heinsius, pronounced an elegant funeral oration. I told him exactly what I had heard about his deserting to the Photinians, and that I had not previously supposed him capable of such apostasy, but that many circumstances now induced me to give credit to the public rumours. He answered, that it was not in his power to prevent men from thinking, or speaking thus of him ; but that he felt conscious of having done nothing wrong. He said, that the author of this report was a Livonian, who had been ordered by one of the Professors in the University of Kbnigsberg to collect the arguments of the Photinians ; and that he had assisted this Livonian, who now so basely insulted him. His letter, which I send you to read, induces me to give little credit to what he says. But be this as it may, the Senate of Nuremberg have acted in a proper and praiseworthy manner, in commanding wicked books of that kind to be publicly burnt by the town-crier, and the followers of this impiety to depart out of their territory. For your University had begun to get into bad repute through this name ; and there were some leading men in this city, who urged this as an objection, when I once recommended some students to you. But now, I hope that the sinister report will be refuted, when this decree of your Senate shall be made known, which our first Preacher, a short time ago, publicly quoted, in the presence of his congregation, when he became acquainted with it from your letter, which I had given him to read."

    Judging from this long extract, and the tenor of Ruarus's reply to the questions put to him at Strasburg, there may be some appearance of duplicity in his conduct; but there are satisfactory reasons for supposing, that, though he had abandoned the received doctrine of the Trinity, he still believed Jesus Christ to be True God, though he could not allow that he was the Eternal God. " The reader," says the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, " will be curious to see, how Socin maintains that the title of true God might be given to Christ, in his reply to some propositions which denied that title to him. ' Prop. i. The same God whom the Hebrew Church worshiped, the Christian Church also worshipeth ; namely, the Creator of heaven and earth.' Socinus. ' This is granted, in the plainest, and most literal acceptation of the words.' ' Prop. ii. Since then the Hebrew Church owned him, namely, the Creator of heaven and earth, to be the only true God ; so also does the Christian Church acknowledge Him to be the only true God, and none other besides him.' Socinus. 'If by this term, true God, be understood the eternal, self-existent Being, the proposition is true. But if by it be understood, one who hath a true divine power and dominion, it is not true. For though the Hebrew Church knew no such true God, but him who was the Creator of heaven and earth, the Christian Church acknowledges another true God, namely, the man Jesus of Nazareth, called the Christ, who at length, (after having been long expected,) in the reigns of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius, was first born, exhibited, and made known to the world, and had then this divine majesty bestowed upon him, by the Creator of heaven and earth.'" (Theses de Christo a vera Divinitate excludendo, nisi sit Creator Cosh et Terrae. Socini Opera,Vol. I. p. 285.) On this point Ruarus did no more than adopt the prevailing opinion of the Polish Unitarians.

    After he left Strasburg, he made the tour of Germany, Denmark, England, Holland, Italy and France ; and then proceeded into Poland. Here he was appointed companion to the sons of a gentleman, of the name of Caspar Sack, about the year 1618 ; and he travelled with them through Germany, Holland, England and France. He was at Leyden in that year; and the year following he spent in London. While in England, he was strongly solicited to take up his residence at Cambridge, with the promise of a Professorship, worth a hundred a-year, an establishment in one of the Colleges, and the privilege of taking pupils, which, it was calculated, would bring him in another hundred:— "a great temptation," he writes, "to a man like me, in indigent circumstances, and one who scarcely ever felt the smiles of fortune, especially as there was a method pointed out to me, by which I might make myself easy in some measure, in point of conscience, in discharging the duties of my situation, a circumstance about which I had good reason to be alarmed. But the love of liberty got the better of all these allurements ; for I saw that I must be entirely fettered in many respects, or rather, it was the love of the Best and Greatest of Beings which prevailed, whom I resolved not to serve by stealth, but ingenuously, and openly, in the face of the world." (Ruari Epp. Cent. i. N. 10.)

    In the autumn of 1620, he was at Frankfort on the Oder, as we learn from a letter addressed by him to Francis Limborch, in which he alludes to Volkelius's work, "De Vera Religione," as a body without a head, Crellius not having then finished the Introductory Chapter, which he had engaged to supply, but which did not make its appearance till ten years later.

    On Ruarus's return into Poland, he resided on the estate of his patron, Caspar Sack ; and Crellius resigning the office of Rector of the College at Racow, for the purpose of devoting himself exclusively to the duties of the ecclesiastical office, Ruarus was appointed his successor, in the month of May, 1621. The celebrity of this place of education was then at its height. It was frequented by several hundred youths of noble birth, many of whom were of the Evangelical and Catholic communities ; and the Rectorship had been for some time an object of Ruarus's ambition. But he soon grew weary of its arduous duties, and resigned the office in 1623.

    About this time an opportunity presented itself, which he gladly embraced, of accompanying on their travels Andrew Wissowatius, Joachim Pastorius, George Niemericius, Nicholas Lubieniecius, and Peter Suchodolius, with whom he visited France, Italy, Holland, England and Denmark, as well as many parts of Germany and Poland. During these travels he formed an intimacy with several of the most eminent literary characters of the day ; and particularly with Grotius, who entertained a high regard for him, and with whom he ever afterwards kept up a friendly correspondence. On his return from this agreeable tour, he again took up his abode with his former patron, Caspar Sack, during his residence with whom, he made occasional excursions to distant places. In 1624, he spent some time at Dantzic. In 1627 and 1628, he visited the University of Frankfort. In 1629, he went to Bremen. In 1630, he had a pupil named Cicovius, or Cicowski ; and in the same year he was employed on a mission to Dantzic. In 1631, he evinced a strong desire to settle at Dantzic ; and, in the same year, he was deputed, by the Synod of Racow, to ascertain the probability of a union of the Socinian and Remonstrant Churches, for which purpose he undertook a journey into Holland. He returned to Dantzic in the year 1632, and was present at the Synod of Racow in 1633. This was the year in which Crellius died ; and Ruarus was deemed the fittest and most proper person, to carry to a conclusion the labours which Crellius had commenced. It was, therefore, decreed by the Synod, that he should come to Racow, in the course of the following winter ; and that the foreign correspondence should, in the mean time, be entrusted to some one else.

    Intent upon privately advancing the interests of his own Church at Dantzic, he set apart stated times for this purpose. He was in the habit of meeting, twice a week, in a social way, ten or twelve friends, of different religious persuasions, including Catholics as well as Protestants ; and at these social meetings, which were held in rotation at the houses of those who attended them, any one was allowed to propose for discussion a passage of Scripture, or some controverted religious topic, and all present were permitted to express their opinions upon it, without the least restriction. By this means, each contributed his share to the common stock of information ; and Ruarus insensibly won upon the good opinion of his companions, and acquired a considerable degree of influence over them, by not pressing his own views unseasonably, or offensively, and by allowing to the observations of each all the weight and importance to which they were entitled. Grotius, in a letter to Nicholas Reigersberg, dated Dec. 19th, 1637, bears testimony to the high esteem in which he was held among the members of the Reformed Church at Dantzic, on account of his mild and conciliating behaviour. But an outcry being raised against him by certain bigots, he was expelled from the city of Dantzic, and took up his abode at Strassin, a neighbouring village, where he continued to propagate his opinions, in spite of the opposition of the Bishop of Cujavia. He was protected from persecution by the patronage of several eminent Polish Nobles, who, while differing from him on doctrinal points, respected him for his learning. His chief patron was the celebrated warrior, Stanislaus Koniekpolski, Grand General of Poland, a Roman Catholic, who procured for him, in 1643, from King Vladislav the Fourth, the diploma of a Royal Secretary, with all the privileges appertaining to that dignity, which was confirmed, through the patronage of Koniekpolski, by King John Cassimir, in 1649. The celebrated Calixtus did all in his power to convert him to the Lutheran faith, at the Conference held at Thorn in 1646, but his efforts were unattended with success.

    Although Ruarus professed Socinianism with his whole soul, we nowhere read of his having been re-baptized. Nor was that deemed necessary. Hoornbeek indeed says, in his "Summa Controversiarum," (L. v. p. 371, Ed. 2,) "An Anabaptist is an illiterate Socinian ; but a Socinian is a learned Anabaptist." Neither of these assertions, however, is true, if we take the word Anabaptist in its proper sense, and understand it to mean an advocate of Rebaptization. There were, in the time of Ruarus, as there are still, numerous illiterate Anabaptists, who were decidedly opposed to the doctrinal system of the Socinians ; and there were also Socinians, who, though they contended that adults were the only proper subjects of Baptism, and that immersion was the only scriptural mode of administering that rite, either supposed that it was intended for none but proselytes, or that it was not meant to be observed as a standing and perpetual ordinance in the Christian Church. The Rev. Robert Robinson, who quotes this passage from Hoornbeek, says, "If he means, that all the Baptists, though some of them do not know it, act on the principles of personal liberty, which learned Socinians have demonstrated, he says the truth." (Eccles. Res. Chap. xv. p. 596.)

    Ruarus was ordained, by the imposition of hands, at the Assembly of Daszow, in 1646 ; and Jonas Schlichtingius, Christopher Rudnicius and Christopher Stoinius, took part in the service. From that time, as we learn from the Synodical Acts, he discharged the office of ordinary Minister among the Socinians at Dantzic ; and was entitled to assume the appellation of Reverend.

    In his religious sentiments generally, Ruarus coincided with the main body of the Socinians ; but he agreed with Jonas Schlichtingius, and the Remonstrants, on the subject of Christ's vicarious satisfaction, respecting which he had a friendly correspondence with Gittichius. He was favourable to the doctrine of a Millennium ; and used to fast every Friday. But he strenuously opposed all, who innovated upon the Socinian system, and especially Daniel Zwicker, who urged a junction with the Hussites, and a community of goods. Subjoined to his "First Century of Letters" is a curious paper, entitled, "Martin Ruarus's Reasons, why the Members of the Church of Rome ought not to be so hostile to Unitarians, commonly called Socinians, or Arians." It was probably drawn up for the satisfaction of his Catholic friend and patron, Koniekpolski ; and is, on many accounts, a document worthy of preservation. The reasons assigned are eight in number, and are as follow, "i. Because Unitarians admit, with a sincere faith, all the canonical books of the Old and New Testament, as a rule of belief, hope and practice, ii. Because they acknowledge and profess, in common with others, the Creed called the Apostles, into a confession of which alone Baptism has usually been administered by all, from ancient times down to the present day. iii. Because the religious doctrines, which they affirm, and hold to be true, may all be expressed in the words of Scripture, and ought not to be denied by any Christian. The Romish Church, indeed, adds to these not a few, which they can neither receive, nor conscientiously acknowledge ; yet their faith ought not, on that account, to be condemned as false, since it consists not of those things which they disbelieve, but of those which they believe: nor does their simplicity merit condemnation, unless any one would, for the same reason, condemn the thousands of illiterate persons within the pale of the Romish Church, who either are ignorant of many things sanctioned by the decrees of that Church, or cannot in any way receive and understand them. For a master of a family does not select from the rest of his furniture, and throw away the smaller vessels, because they are incapable of holding as much as the larger ones ; and as we look upon the sun with our own eyes, and not the eyes of others, and trust to ourselves, and not to others, in what regards the sun, so we judge on other subjects according to our respective capacities, and our own estimate of what is right, and, as the case may be, approve or reject them, or hold ourselves in a state of suspense concerning them. iv. Because the Romish Church admits, that most of those articles of faith which Unitarians do not believe, are not expressly contained in Scripture, and deduces them either from Tradition, or the authority of Fathers and Councils ; but since others, who dissent from the Church of Rome, in fixing articles of faith, reject the authority of Tradition, Councils and Fathers, equally with those who are commonly called Unitarians, or Socinians, there is no reason why that Church should be incensed against the one more than the other, although the former, it may be, on some points, contrary to their own principles, make the same profession as the Church of Rome. v. Because Unitarians condemn no man for his errors alone, provided those errors do not involve the denial of a saving faith, or lead to practical impiety ; and therefore are ready to fraternize with all, who believe Jesus to be the Christ, and regulate their lives according to his precepts, vi. Because they are not captious, either as regards rites which have grown up in the Church, or as respects phrases which have received the sanction of antiquity, provided only that they are allowed to interpret both according to the analogy of faith in the sacred Scriptures, vii. Because, in the leading articles of the Christian faith, they agree more nearly with the Church of Rome than with any other sect: for example, in their opinions about predestination; conditional election and reprobation; the universality of the grace of God, and the benefits arising from Christ's death ; free-will, and its influence in the conversion of men to the faith ; justification by love ; the necessity of good works, on which they insist far more than any other Church ; the possibility of keeping God's commands ; the difference between the old and new covenant, and the superiority of the latter over the former, with regard both to its promises and precepts ; the distinction between venial and deadly sins ; and the difference between John's baptism and that of Christ. It is commonly objected to them, indeed, by way of reproach, that they do not believe the Holy Trinity ; that they deny the deity of the Son of God, and his satisfaction for our sins ; and that they condemn Infant Baptism. But they answer and testify, that they believe from the heart in the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, and that they accordingly baptize in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, and acknowledge a unity in their Trinity ; that they hold Jesus Christ to be the Son of God, and true God, and adore him as such ; that they believe that Christ abundantly satisfied the will of his Father in all things, which he required him to do and to suffer for our sins, and thus offered an expiation for our sins, by the sacrifice of his own body. They confess, indeed, that Infant Baptism is not enjoined in Scripture (which is acknowledged also by the Church of Rome); but they do not condemn those who practise it: they even practise it themselves in some places, in order to avoid scandal ; but they do not compel any one to be baptized a second time, who has been baptized in his infancy. In those things, therefore, which they are said to deny, they acknowledge the thing itself ; but they do not hold scholastic disputations about the modus rei of so much importance, that the unity of the faith should be destroyed on account of it. viii. Finally, because, if they err, they are ready to be set right from Scripture: and because they earnestly strive after piety towards God, charity towards their neighbours, and sobriety of life ; and patiently bear all the injuries inflicted on them, by a lawful magistrate, in the name of religion."

    Ruarus died about the year 1657, when he had nearly attained the age of seventy. His first wife was the daughter of Martin Voss, a merchant, of Dantzic. By her he had several children, whom he left scantily provided for. His second wife's maiden name was Catharine Weimar. She survived him ; but whether he had any children by her has been doubted. Of his sons, David was brought up as a printer ; Joachim became a Roman Catholic ; and Martin entered the University of Konigsberg as a student, July 24th, 1659, and was intended for the ministry among the Socinians. But he afterwards turned his attention to Medicine, and became a practising Chemist at Amsterdam, and a follower of Jacob Bœhmen.

    Reinhart states, that Ruarus was buried at Strassin. Moller collected many eulogiums upon him, written not only by Socinians, but by learned men of other persuasions ; and Bock mentions an engraved portrait of him, underneath which was written, in an unknown hand, "Tantae eruditionis fuit, ut Grotium in partes Socinianorum traxerit." He was one of the most learned men of his time ; a fine poet, and an excellent orator, and prose writer; well versed in the Oriental dialects, and familiar with several European languages. His correspondence, which was published, and of which frequent use has been made in the course of the present work, is particularly interesting, and throws great light upon the literary and religious history of his own age.

    A short time before his death, Ruarus addressed a letter to Curcellaeus, thanking him for an invitation to go, and spend the remainder of his days in the city of Amsterdam. "It was a great comfort to me," says he, "that you offered me a safe asylum in your city, and I will gladly follow your advice, if matters should grow worse in this place." (Here he alludes to the calamities occasioned by the Swedish war.) "In the mean while, as long as any hope of more peaceful times remains, I will not remove hence to such a distance, on slight grounds, particularly with my numerous family. Nor do I think it right to leave the care of the Churches in these parts, as long as I can maintain my ground ; or to exchange my mode of living, which is tolerable here, for your too expensive one. For although, by the blessing of the immortal God, I have wherewith to support myself and my family for a time, yet my means would soon fail, if I could obtain assistance from no other quarter; and though, at the age of sixty-eight, I cannot have long to live, yet it would evince a want of feeling, if I were to consume the whole of my patrimony during my own life, and afterwards leave my wife, and so many children, to the mercy of strangers in a foreign land. It cannot reasonably be expected, on account of my hated name, which all men will abhor, that I should there gain anything by my literary labours, for which, by the grace of God, I have sufficient strength still left: yet my foolish parents gave me some knowledge of letters, nor have I learnt any other art ; and at my age it is too late to begin. My son-in-law, J. S.,  by God's blessing, enjoys good health, and lives under the same roof with me ; but the iniquity of the times has reduced him also to no small straits, for during two years and a half which he has been here, the salary in vain promised him from Poland still remains unpaid."

    Ruarus's pen was constantly employed, in the service of the religious body to which he belonged. The following is an account of his writings, published and unpublished, taken chiefly from Bock.

    1. A Century of Select Letters of Martin Ruarus, and also of H. Grotius, M. Mersennus, M. Gittichius, Naeranus, and other learned Men, &c. Amst. David Crispicus (Ruarus), 1677, 8vo. Another Century was afterwards published at the same place, by David Ruarus ; 1681, 8vo. Ruarus is better known by these two Centuries of Epistles, than by any other of his published writings. They were collected by his sons from his extensive correspondence; and published, as the dates shew, after his death. To the former of the two Volumes was prefixed a Preface by his son, Joachim Ruarus, who was the author of some original poems in the Dutch language, on the internal worship of God. The Preface to the latter Volume was supplied by David Ruarus, the printer, another of his sons. A second edition of these Letters, with Notes, was published by Zeltner, at Leipzic, in 1729, by way of Supplement to that writer's "History of Crypto-Socinianism at Altorf." To the first Century were annexed

    2. A Paper on Magistracy, by way of reply, as is supposed, to a Letter of Daniel Brenius, dated Amsterdam, August 26th, 1627; and

    3. Reasons why the Members of the Church of Rome ought not to be so hostile to Unitarians, commonly called Socinians, or Arians. These "Reasons" are included by Sandius in a list of anonymous writings, and represented as still remaining in manuscript, (B. A. p. 178,) although he had previously alluded to them, as published in 1677 (p. 114).

    4. Notes on the Catechism of the Polish Churches, about twenty of which were inserted in the editions of 1665 and 1680. The rest remained unpublished. The editors, Andrew Wissowatius and Joachim Stegmann, Jun., speaking of Ruarus, in connexion with John Crellius and Jonas Schlichtingius, describe him as one of the chief luminaries of their Church. (Vide " The Racovian Catechism, with Notes and Illustrations, translated from the Latin, by Thomas Rees, F.S.A. Lond. 1818," p. civ.; and General Index, Ruarus, p. 401.)

    5. A Confession respecting the Doctrine of Satisfaction, with Annotations of Peter Zornius. MS.

    6. Analyses, or Discourses on various Passages of Scripture. MS.

    7. A History of his own Time. MS.

    8. A Book of Extracts. MS.

    9. On the Obedience of a Christian Man. MS.

    10. Conferences held at Berlin with Paul Felgenhauer, in 1629 ; and mentioned by that writer in his "Refut. Paralogismorum Socinian." p. 108.

    11. Contributions to a German Version of the Books of the New Testament, which was published in 1630.

    12. A Letter to Ganovius, of Konigsberg.

    13. A Friendly Disputation against the Jews, containing an Examination of a certain Jewish Writing, translated from Portuguese into Latin, and an Answer to certain Questions therein proposed to Christians. 1644, 4to. Sandius attributes this Disputation to Daniel Brenius (B. A. p. 136); but, in so doing, Bock supposes him to have been altogether mistaken. (Hist. Ant. T. I. P. ii. p. 732.) Reinhart is of opinion, that Martin Ruarus was the author. (Vide Art. 223, No. 4, h.) It was translated into Dutch by J. F. Oudaan, and published at Amsterdam, in 1664, 4to. (Vide Sandii B. A. p. 137.)

    14. Two Letters of Ruarus to George Richter, Advocate of Nuremberg.

    15. A brief Explanation of the first Chapter of John, in German. We learn from the Acts of the Synod of Racow, A.D. 1635, that Ruarus wrote this "Explanation."

    16. A Translation of Four Letters of Faustus Socinus to Andrew Dudithius from Italian into Latin. Racow, 1635.

    17. On Alms. This was written in German ; and is referred to by Ruarus himself, in a letter to Zwicker.

    18. Latin Poems. Moller mentions these, and praises them ; as well as a German Poem by Ruarus, in Alexandrine verse, which was subjoined to Henry Hudemann's "German Emblems," under the title, "Des Hirnschleiffers." 1626, 8vo.

    19. A Reply to John Botsaccus, a Dantzic Divine. Ruarus mentions this himself, Epp. Cent. ii. N. 98.

    20. A Dissertation on the Word of God. Irenopolis, 1646, 8vo.

    In addition to the above, Ruarus was engaged in works, in which his name does not appear ; and he was commissioned, and requested to write others, which, from various causes, he was unable, in some cases, to undertake, and in others to complete. In conjunction with John Stoinius and Joachim Stegmann, he superintended the publication of John Crellius's posthumous works, which were finished in 1656, the year before his own death. He held out a hope to his patron, Stanislaus Koniekpolski, General in Chief of the armies of the King of Poland, that he would write A History of the Scythian War, which was brought to a successful issue by this able commander, who routed and put to flight thirty thousand Tartars.  Ruarus likewise contemplated a new edition of Gregory of Nyssa's .  It further appears, from the Synodical Acts of 1629, that he was employed in compiling A Theological Lexicon. To him also was entrusted the revision of the "Triadomachia," as appears from the Synodical Acts of 1633. At the Synod of Racow, A.D. 1637, he was invited to prepare An Explanation of the Confession of the Unitarian Churches ; and at the Assembly of Czarcow, in 1652, he was commissioned to write On the Mode of forming a Union with the Evangelicals.


    (Vidend. Ruari Epist. passim. Epp. Remonstrantium, N*. 609. Sandii B. A. pp. 114, 115. Bock, Hist. Ant. T. I. pp. 713—735. Bayle, Diet. Hist, et Crit. Art. Ruarus. Zeltneri Hist. Crypto-Socin. pp. 42—45. 55. 78. 93—95. 100—149. 316—329. 388—392. 534—539. Suppl. p. 1231. ThonuB Crenii Animadv. Philol. et Hist. P. v. p. ult. Lindsey's Hist. View, Chap. vi. Sect. iv. pp. 388—394. Krasinski's Hist. Sketch of the Ref. in Poland, Vol. II. Chap. xiv. pp. 381, 382. Schelhornii Amosn. Liter. T. IV. pp. 529, 530, etc.)



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